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Krispin's Sporadic Newsletter

July 2011

Volume 2, Number 1

In This Issue

· Linus Pauling was right, we all need MORE vitamin C.

· A Better Way to Lower Blood Pressure without Medication

And a short but important note on supplementing calcium found near the bottom.

Suggested Reading

Irwin Stone's THE HEALING FACTOR Free Download PDF








Bill Sardi, articles various

Contact Me

Another Look at Vitamin C, Pauling was Right

12 years ago I read a clinical study that started me on my research/writing journey to Naked at Noon, Understanding Sunlight and Vitamin D. The vitamin D premise at that time was that a daily intake of 400 IU prevented rickets and was sufficient for young and old, large and small, living in any location and having any skin color. It wasn't true and the book shows, using clinical evidence, why it was not true. Today most everyone including the AMA and National Institutes of Health agree one size does not fit all. It seems I am now embarked on a new journey.

In November 2010 two of my clients asked me questions about vitamin C I could not answer. One client had been diagnosed with prostate cancer and wanted research on IV (intravenous) vitamin C. Did it really treat cancer? The other worked with a physician who gave IV vitamin C as a treatment for chronic fatigue. This client also suffered from depression and anxiety. For 72 hours after each treatment the fatigue, depression, and anxiety disappeared, only to return with a vengeance, plunging the client into deeper hopelessness. Why did the IV vitamin C make such a rapid and dramatic difference? Why did the result only last for 3 days?

Like my vitamin D research/writing project 12 years ago, spurred by a report of dramatic symptoms and responses of upstate New Yorkers diagnosed with low vitamin D, it was time to learn about vitamin C.

We've all learned, somewhere in history sailors contracted scurvy if they didn't eat lemons while at sea. (Really, I know they were called Limeys but it is a misnomer as the fruit they needed and consumed was lemon. Limes do not provide sufficient vitamin C.) The disease was so dramatic death might occur within months. The rapid onset and devastating symptoms, extreme fatigue, swollen and bleeding mucous membranes including gums, leading to loss of teeth, bruising on every surface, bleeding and pain in muscles and joints, inability to heal when injured and susceptibility to any infection made finding the 'cure' an important milestone in our understanding of human and animal health.

This story of the discovery of scurvy, cause, and treatment, is similar to the story of rickets and vitamin D. For vitamin D deficiency (rickets) cod liver oil restored health if given before permanent deformations occurred and eventually it was determined that the active 'cure' in the cod liver oil was vitamin D, the same D produced in human skin exposed to UV-B light.

What is also similar between the history of vitamin D and vitamin C is the healthcare doctrine of 'if you don't die or deform quickly' you have enough. What do I mean? 400 IU of vitamin D will certainly prevent rickets in most cases (not all) and until quite recently it was the 'Gold Standard' for sufficiency. However, after years of clinical research supporting a multitude of other roles for vitamin D, besides avoiding rickets, a much greater amount, up to 4,000 IU daily, is now recognized as possibly being needed for short and long term health.

From recent research (and looking back to the wisdom of early researchers and scientists including Stone, Klenner, Jungeblut, Cathcart, Cameron, Pauling, and more recently Hickey and Riordan) vitamin C isn't just a vitamin anymore and 100 mg a day is not enough for short or long term health at any age, size, ethnicity or location.

Vitamin C is needed and used by every cell in the human body. Only man, the primates, the guinea pig, and several species of bats lack the ability to make their own vitamin C. All plants, other animals, reptiles, birds and even fish make vitamin C as needed. Animals have a series of enzymes that convert glucose into vitamin C as needed. In humans one of the essential enzymes, l-gulonolactone oxidase (acronym- GLO) is missing. We have all four enzyme producing genes but one of the four, the one coded to signal production of l-gulonolactone oxidase, though present is inactivated (turned off) in humans. We humans have lost our GLOJ

Since the recognition of the disease scurvy, scientists and physicians have tried to determine how much vitamin C humans need for health, vitamin C sufficiency being seen as the amount needed to prevent scurvy. When I began studying vitamin D, sufficiency was determined in a similar way, enough vitamin D and/or sunlight to prevent rickets. We only need 400 IU of vitamin D to prevent rickets however that amount of vitamin D will not provide optimal vitamin D sufficiency to our cells, bone, tissue, brain, glands, and organs. Could a similar marginal insufficiency be true for vitamin C?

Think of vitamins and other nutrients in a slightly different way, there is the amount needed to prevent frank disease, beriberi, scurvy, rickets, pellagra; the amount needed to provide sufficiency, bathing tissues and blood with essential elements for cellular growth, repair, and apoptosis; and excess, an overabundance that may result in a reverse effect, suppressing function and creating relative insufficiency of other nutrients. While the science of frank, disease producing, deficiency is well developed the study of optimal sufficiency is in its infancy.

In many of the papers cited here, though animal studies, the researchers question our current recommendations for vitamin C. In the Baylor College of Medicine 2010 paper Dual Role of Ascorbate in Bone Homeostasis the authors conclude…

Unfortunately, it is not possible at present to determine the adequacy of dietary recommended intake for ASC in humans. Although current recommendations may be valid for the prevention of scurvy, they are not necessarily appropriate for the prevention of osteoporosis…

And from the GULO- mice studying tissue levels…

The recent identification of an extended role for ascorbate in regulating the hydroxylation of HIF-1 and histone demethylases highlights the necessity for the maintenance of adequate ascorbate in all body tissues to control cell metabolism and gene expression. Our study indicates that, to achieve optimal tissue concentrations, saturated plasma concentrations should be maintained with daily ascorbate intakes at a sufficient level to achieve this

The daily amount of vitamin C animals make is significantly higher than the amounts recommended by the RDA or the DRI for human sufficiency. Estimated animal/reptile production ranges from 10 (reptiles)-170 mg (goat)-275 (mouse) mg per kilo per day. That range in a 150 lb human is equivalent to 680-18,000 mg, The lowest number is still 7.5 TIMES higher than the DRI for men, 90 mg.

The RDA for pregnant women is 100 mg. vitamin C. Research shows brain development is impaired in the offspring of animals and perhaps humans with low intake of vitamin C.(1,2,3,4,5) Pregnancy is stressful, a good stress but still stress. Stressed rats (retaining GLO and making their own vitamin C) produce the human equivalent of 15 grams (15,000 mg) a day.(6)

Life in the 21st century is filled with stress. As our levels of daily stress increase we may be sealing our own fates. Stress may be classified as acute stress, either positive, eustress, the fun kind, skiing down a mountain, racing with a friend, rock climbing, marathon running, or negative, such as illness, injury, being fired, losing one's home, bankruptcy, trouble in the family, betrayal; episodic acute stress, meaning stress as a way of life, always in burn out, on the edge, a life of relative chaos; and chronic stress, never-ending and inescapable, such as a bad marriage or extremely taxing job. In addition there is Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome, PTSD, where the stress is over but the body and mind cannot 'forget'.

Animals show steady and significant production of vitamin C throughout the day and night AND when any stress occurs, physical, such as illness or injury, or mental, such as being caged, transported, abused, or chased, need for and production of vitamin C dramatically increases. As another example, goats make the human equivalent of 13,000 mg daily, and significantly more, as much as 100,000 mg, when under stress.

The pituitary and adrenal glands have one of the highest tissue concentrations of vitamin C. In healthy vitamin C producing animals pituitary ACTH and then adrenal cortisol production rises when stressed, and concurrently, vitamin C production, increasing serum vitamin C. A sufficiency of vitamin C enhances the production of ACTH, cortisol and adrenaline (epinephrine) so that the initial response to stress is improved.

Animals perceive stress, other than illness or injury, as the need for 'fight or flight'. Sanity (well-being) requires we subdue our enemies or we run away from them. No animal stays healthy remaining with an un-subdued enemy (either get away, or turn your enemy into a friend). The initial encounter requires an adequate response.

Among other benefits, increased cortisol and epinephrine allow more powerful punches or faster running from danger (fight or flight) and less inflammation if ill or injured. The production and release of large amounts of vitamin C concurrently or immediately following cortisol release rapidly reduces cortisol and epinephrine to within normal range, the pre-stressed state.(7,8,9,10) In animals not producing vitamin C, or those with lower production due to aging, chronic stress may lead to reduction in body stores of vitamin C, exhaustion of epinephrine production and inappropriately elevated cortisol. This has great downsides.

Excess cortisol or inappropriately timed cortisol will slow healing and when dis-regulated contributes to anxiety and mood disorders, insulin resistance, obesity, metabolic syndrome, insomnia and fatigue.(7,8,9,11) Excessive stress may eventually lead to low cortisol and adrenal exhaustion.

A primary reason animals suffer less or not at all from these conditions is because they make their own vitamin C. The post stress production of abundant vitamin C and return of cortisol levels to unstressed ranges, restores tissue vitamin C to be ready for future stress. Humans also release vitamin C during stress but they must take from body stores and as tissue levels are depleted (no GLO) the ability to recover from stress is reduced and eventually lost.

How it works- I am stressed, my cortisol and epinephrine rise, I deal successfully with the stress, as my vitamin C rises (in humans not produced but taken from serum and tissue stores) I return to my healthy, normal, state- unstressed.

When daily vitamin C intake doesn't replenish body TISSUE stores (not serum levels) the system fails.

If we do not make C and we do not take C, over time, we will use up all available body stores and find ourselves with inappropriately elevated cortisol and lower epinephrine production and eventually, if the low C/stress cycle continues, in full adrenal exhaustion, little cortisol production remaining. Vitamin C not only maintains and balances cortisol and epinephrine but, given in appropriate doses, restores normal epinephrine and cortisol production (recovery from the effects of chronic or acute stress including PTSD).

The current accepted treatment for cortisol imbalance/adrenal exhaustion, using adrenal supplements, ginseng, or even cortisol supplementation, all fail to replenish that one important, irreplaceable key to long term health, vitamin C. Even animals may suffer from lack of C if stress is prolonged or when they age, or in poorly bred domesticated animals producing insufficient levels of daily C, all resulting in an imbalance between need and production. Life requires sufficient vitamin C and 75 mg or even 100 mg is not possibly enough.

The Many Reasons We Need Vitamin C

The reasons listed here are only a few of the many studies. More will be published at a later date.

Another critical role for vitamin C is apoptosis, programmed cell death. It appears that one of the roles of vitamin C is to signal damaged cells to die (a good thing).(12,13,14,15)

Genes regulate hundreds, perhaps thousands, of biochemical reactions.

Ascorbic Acid and gene expression: another example of regulation of gene expression by small molecules? Belin, S., Kaya, F., Burtey, S., and Fontes, M. 2010 Curr.Genomics

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C, AA) has long been considered a food supplement necessary for life and for preventing scurvy. However, it has been reported that other small molecules such as retinoic acid (vitamin A) and different forms of calciferol (vitamin D) are directly involved in regulating the expression of numerous genes. These molecules bind to receptors that are differentially expressed in the embryo and are therefore crucial signalling molecules in vertebrate development. The question is: is ascorbic acid also a signalling molecule that regulates gene expression? We therefore present and discuss recent publications that demonstrate that AA regulates the expression of a battery of genes. We offer a clue to understanding the biochemical mechanism by which AA regulates gene expression. Finally we will discuss the question of a receptor for AA and its potential involvement in embryonic development and cell differentiation

While 60 mg., the last 1989 RDA, or even the 2000 DRI (Dietary Reference Intake) of 90 mg. for men and 75 mg. for women may keep us from scurvy it is probable we need more daily to attain and maintain optimal health and it is CERTAIN we need more when under stress, whether illness, injury, or mental/emotional threat. Scientists studying vitamin C label deficiency as scurvy but insufficiency as hypoascorbemia.

The studies determining sufficiency have used serum or leucocyte vitamin C measurements. The problem is, neither serum nor leukocytes may reflect body tissue stores. The pituitary, adrenals, and lens of the eye have the highest concentrations but all tissues contain vitamin C. Tissue levels of vitamin C vary by intake, metabolism (how fast you use it up and whether you recycle) and age.

How tissues function depend on adequate vitamin C. Levels found in mucous membranes and secreting glands may be depleted and impair functioning of those glands and tissues, including the adrenals, pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid, ovaries, testes, thymus, eye, gastrointestinal tract, and urinary tract, resulting in reduced health and longevity.

Vitamin C is necessary for the formation of healthy collagen, 1/4th of all body protein, which is a part of muscle, arteries, capillaries, vessels, skin, hair, nails, ligaments, joints, tendons, discs, teeth, and bones.

When I wrote Naked at Noon, the clinical literature showed getting enough calcium and vitamin D did NOT reverse bone loss. It did seem to decrease falls and fractures, not a bad thing. It was frustrating to realize D and calcium were not useful to prevent or cure osteoporosis or osteopenia. Clinical studies since that time further confirm while important to bone health D and calcium are not the primary key to healthy regeneration of BONES.

Now I know why. In 2010 a study from Baylor College of Medicine using the KO (gene knock out) mouse showed PROFOUND bone loss, rapid osteoporosis, when mice were stressed and adequate vitamin C became vitamin C deficiency (but NOT scurvy).(16) Getting enough vitamin C throughout one's life, in addition to adequate vitamin D and minerals, may keep bones healthy and prevent hip fractures and the need for hip replacements.(17) Even adding vitamin C later in life may prove to stop and even reverse bone loss.

Adequate vitamin C protects our skin from wrinkles and from sun damage.(18) It is vitamin C in the skin that is responsible for the lipid barrier function of the stratum corneum, a key to healthy aging skin, keeping it moist and supple.(19,20,21)

A note here for those of you seeking younger skin, chemical exfoliation destroys this important barrier and further damages and ages your skin. Vitamin C internally and externally protects and heals, even reversing skin aging. Instead of exfoliation, use oral and topical vitamin C (in the Nutrition Workbook- Topical Formulas section) to improve the health, look, and feel of your skin. <>My clients have been using the spray since 1999 with exceptional results. It costs about $0.50 for a week's supply.</>

Low ascorbate status is associated with gallstones and gallbladder disease.(22,23,24,25,26) Increasing vitamin C intake increases bile production, lowering bile saturation and improving absorption of the fat soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids. Vitamin C also decreases cholesterol by improving hydroxylation of cholesterol into hormone production and into bile acids.(23,27,28,29)

A report in the Lancet, March 2001, found those with the highest levels of vitamin C in their blood had one half the risk of death from all causes, including heart disease. Dr. Key Tee Khaw found that there was a decreased risk of infection and heart disease for those with higher levels of C in their blood.(30,31,32) Dr. Khaw has also participated in studies showing the protective effect of vitamin C in preventing diabetes, stroke, hypertension, lung disease, degenerative disc disease, osteoporosis and cancer.(33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40)

Significant research suggests ascorbate status regulates rates of 'secretions' from saliva to cortisol to gastric juices. Ascorbates alter insulin secretion and oxytocin (the feel good pituitary hormone). Vitamin C normalizes production and release of epinephrine and norepinephrine. Dry mouth and dry eyes, dry mucous membranes in general, may be a consequence of insufficient vitamin C. Extra vitamin C may decrease symptoms of aging and menopause. (41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53)

Ascorbate status should refer to tissue levels of vitamin C NOT serum values.

Vitamin C plays a primary role in many hydroxylation reactions including vitamin D3 hydroxylation to the active 1,25(OH)2D and the conversion of l-tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan, the precursor to serotonin. Other such key hydroxylations include that of cholesterol to pregnenolone and then to other hormones including cortisol, testosterone and progesterone, production of normal collagen, and production of carnitine necessary for muscle energy, fat metabolism and muscle strength.

Two of the early symptoms of scurvy are fatigue and depression. <> Researchers think it may have to do with a lack of carnitine.</>

In research guinea pigs, who like humans are unable to produce their own vitamin C, given 100 mg vitamin C, 5 mg vitamin C plus 10 mg carnitine, or 5 mg vitamin C (guinea pig RDA) only those given 5 mg vitamin C with 10 mg carnitine or 100 mg vitamin C alone improved carnitine production and only the 100 mg vitamin C group showed reduced triglycerides.(54) In human equivalents the 5 mg dose would be 750 mg daily (150 lb human), well above the current DRI; the carnitine equivalent, 1500 mg (150 lb human); the 100 mg vitamin C group would be equivalent to 15,000 mg (150 lb human). Carnitine allows us to burn FAT for ENERGY. Carnitine insufficiency contributes to fatigue, often profound.

Vitamin C also reduces histamine and has been used to ameliorate allergies, asthma, and histamine induced mood disorders.(55) Vitamin C dependent actions regarding increasing epinephrine, increasing 5-htp/serotonin, lowering histamine and optimizing levels of active vitamin D suggest an amazing variety of functions all related to feeling good. Abundant intake of Vitamin C and C rich foods might make our world much less stressed and happier.

Vitamin C will NOT work by itself. Vitamin C facilitates cell structure and function. Collagen production requires protein, as does carnitine production. Vitamin D requires either a supplement or sunlight. Your immune system needs zinc and protein (and many other things) plus vitamin C. Vitamin C makes what you eat, protein, carbohydrate, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals, work, PERIOD. When Linus Pauling and others described vitamin C they called it the HEALING factor. Healing, building, regenerating, vitamin C makes all elements and thereby bodies work better.

How Much C Do We Need?

Vitamin C may be referred to as ascorbic acid, ascorbate, or vitamin C. In research often ascorbic acid does NOT mean ascorbic acid USP the supplement. Read carefully.

Recommended daily vitamin C intakes from government/healthcare sources range from the 1989 RDA of 60 mg to as high as 100 mg for pregnant women.(56)

Hickey and Roberts have written a downloadable book ($6) Ridiculous Dietary Allowance, An Open Challenge to the RDA for Vitamin C. In it they discuss many of the problematic issues regarding the current RDA and DRI. They suggest a minimum daily dose of 3,000 mg, 1,000 mg with each meal. The 'with each meal' part is IMPORTANT. Other living creatures producing vitamin C do so all day long. They don't dump a big dose once a day. Vitamin C in ALL forms has a very short half life and is rapidly excreted. Once a day just won't do the job. Hickey and Roberts support their recommendations with science and logic. In disease states their recommended daily dose is higher, 6,000-16,000 mg daily for heart disease; 14,000-39,000 mg if you have cancer.

Animals produce vitamin C all day long and increase production when stressed. Humans taking 100 mg once a day do not come near real sufficiency and even higher doses taken just once a day won't provide the serum levels necessary to maintain tissue levels of vitamin C.

It is unlikely less than 2,000 mg daily, split into multiple doses taken with food, would ever supply basic needs for children or adults (though you wouldn't have scurvy). Higher 'mega-doses' may be beneficial for everyone at certain times or situations but may have adverse consequences in some persons and should not be used without knowing your need and your reaction to ascorbic acid or sodium ascorbate. Timed-release vitamin C is NOT. We only absorb in the small intestine and any C not released there is passed out of the body. Timed-release supplements work by coating the element in shellac of varying densities to prevent easy digestion. By the time the coating dissolves the element is no longer in the small intestine. Clinical studies have found no value (value any greater than regular ascorbic acid) in timed-release forms of C.

If you are ill, recovering from surgery, bruise easily, are pregnant or nursing or have been diagnosed with any of the following diseases/conditions you may need higher levels of vitamin C for a shorter or longer period of time.

You will need more C, >=3,000 mg daily, taken in divided doses, if you eat a high fat diet, drink excessive amounts of coffee or alcohol, are under chronic low level stress, suffer from jet lag, or you are sunning in the summer (because your skin needs extra C to protect from the dark side of sunlight). Exposure to intense UV (both A and B) reduces the skin's vitamin C content and it must be restored.

Conditions that may indicate a need for even higher dose (greater than 4,000 mg daily) vitamin C-

  • allergies(57,58,59,60,61)

  • asthma(61,62,63,64,65,66,67)

  • diarrheal diseases including colitis, Crohn's disease, and IBS(68,69,70,71,72,73)

  • cataract(74,75,76,77,78)

  • heart disease(79)

  • hypertension(80,81,82,83)

  • Type II diabetes(84,85)

  • anemia(63,64,65,66,67)

  • cavities(86,87,88)

  • periodontal disease(43,89,90)

  • ligament, tendon and joint degeneration(91)

  • osteoporosis(16)

  • autoimmune disorders(58,92,93,94,95)

  • thyroid disease both hypothyroid and hyperthyroid(96)

  • acute infections(43,97,98,99)

  • arthritis(100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107,108,109)

Use of high dose vitamin C in chronic infections such as Lyme's disease or mycoplasma or Cell Wall Deficient bacteria associated with Chronic Fatigue, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Multiple Sclerosis, Sarcoidosis, hepatitis, herpes, and other chronic diseases of unknown origin is more controversial however some success has been clinically documented using intravenous vitamin C. It is possible the new liposomal C may also be effective. (below)

Supplemental vitamin C may be ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, potassium ascorbate, mineral ascorbates, or Ester-C. All have similar actions in the human body. All are poorly absorbed when taken in a single dose greater than 500 mg. All forms will work at low and high doses once you learn how to use them, small doses taken frequently throughout the day with food to increase absorption and reduce digestive problems. None of these types of vitamin C, regardless of dose, taken orally, will reach serum levels necessary to treat serious illness or cancer. Read on to find out about liposomal C.

Some minor cautions- In rare cases bowel tolerance levels (doses high enough to cause diarrhea) of C, ascorbic acid, have caused serious allergic reactions. Stopping high doses of C abruptly may cause temporary rebound scurvy. Vitamin C works better when combined with bioflavonoids such as quercitin or rutin (about 500 mg of either daily). C is water soluble and is rapidly used or excreted, whatever the form.

There is no evidence taking higher doses (greater than 3,000-4,000 mg daily) when you have no apparent need will protect you from infectious disease or improve your health. There is significant evidence taking more vitamin C WHEN NEEDED will profoundly improve your health and lengthen your lifespan. High dose vitamin C may not prevent you from getting a cold or flu but once ill, high doses will rapidly reduce symptoms and significantly shorten the length of time you are ill.(110)

When antibiotics are needed to treat diseases, such as helicobacter pylori, the stomach ulcer bug, or chlamydia, the addition of vitamin C shows clinical significance in improvement/success of treatment.(111,112,113)

Liposomal Vitamin C

In the last few years a new liposomal vitamin C (see below) has been producing results similar to high dose vitamin C at lower doses and at higher doses results similar to intravenous vitamin C. Liposomal C liposome.jpghas shown itself to be efficacious, safe, and affordable.

lip·o·some noun liposomes, plural A minute spherical sac of phospholipid molecules enclosing a water droplet, esp. as formed artificially to carry drugs or other substances into the tissues

The properties of phospholipids allow water dispersible substances to be absorbed into the spherical 'sac'.

Liposomes are present in all living systems. The discovery of the liposome is credited to Alec Bangham working at the Institute of Animal Physiology at Babraham, England in 1961. Initially described as multilamellar smectic mesophases, (don't say that fast) it was not long after the name 'liposome' was proposed and it stuck (and I am grateful).

So, liposomes have been around for 40 years, now frequently listed on cosmetic labels and found in some high tech drugs. Liposome encased vitamin C appeared much later. Diagnosed with heart disease in the 1990s and near heart failure in 2002-2003 Les Nachman, founder and owner of LivOn Labs in Nevada, was introduced to the benefits of "massive" doses of intravenous vitamin C. Seeking options beyond death or a heart transplant he met with alternative physicians in California who prepared a recovery program which included intravenous vitamin C. The program worked, his heart recoverd and Nachman's sense was that the IV C was the element that made the most profound difference in his recovery.

His experience with high dose intravenous vitamin C, resulting in dramatic improvement to his heart and health, inspired him to undertake the task of finding a more affordable and less invasive way to administer high dose vitamin C. In 2004 LivOn Labs introduced the new LipoSpheric™ Vitamin C, a liposomal delivery system making ingestion of higher doses of vitamin C convenient, affordable and without digestive side-effects (diarrhea).

Liposomes are phospholipid (think lecithin) nano-encapsulations (really small molecules with a sac inside that may be manufactured to contain a vitamin, nutriceuticals or drugs, jpg above).

Currently, manufactured (sterically stabilized) liposomes are being used in the cosmetic industry in skin care products to enhance delivery of nutriceuticals into the skin and in the pharmaceutical industry to increase and target absorption of drugs, particularly antibiotics and chemotherapeutic medications.

Phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol (think lecithin granules), are able absorb and enclose other substances and to emulsify, mix fat and water together. In liposomal vitamin C the water soluble vitamin C, typically ascorbic acid or sodium ascorbate, is first thoroughly dissolved in distilled water and then mixed with dry lecithin, absorbing into the water phase of the phospholipid. To further increase biologic activity the solution undergoes a process, either sonication (sound waves) or nozzle pressurized (17000 PSI) bombardment, or ultrafiltration that breaks the vitamin C saturated phospholipids into smaller and smaller phospholipid nano-particles. The process, absorption into water and then into the phospholipid followed by either high pressure bombardment, filtration, or sonication, creates a vitamin C containing phospholipid particle that

1. Allows rapid and direct absorption from the small intestine into the liver and then into your blood.

2. Allows rapid absorption and delivery from the blood into body tissues, the ultimate bioavailability, intracellular delivery, including the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and even the nucleus of cells.

This improved delivery system not only increases the amount absorbed into blood and tissues, it allows for serum elevations of ascorbate equivalent to intravenous vitamin C.

When vitamin C is ingested in amounts greater than 500 mg about 19%-38% is actually absorbed so a capsule or tablet of 1,000 mg would provide about 190-380 mg to your body. It has to do with bowel kinetics. The higher the oral dose of vitamin C, whether ascorbic acid or sodium ascorbate or other mineral ascorbate) the lower the absorption percent; this is similar to what happens when you take calcium, at 250 mg 40% absorption, 2,000 mg 14% absorption (Heaney, see the Workbook).

Due to the phospholipid shell and small particle size liposomal vitamin C has absorption percentages ranging from 70-93% providing 700-930 mg per 1,000 mg of liposomal C, an increase of 50-75% more per equivalent ascorbic acid dose. And because the liposome does not increase water kinetics higher doses are not lost in the bowel (diarrhea).

Vitamin C has shown promise in cancer treatment when serum levels remain extremely high over a 24 hour multi-day (24/7) time period. This level has only been possible using thrice weekly high dose intravenous vitamin C. Studies show serum levels using oral liposomal C reach levels equal to those levels found to be effective in cancer treatment.(13,114,115,116) This ability to reach higher serum levels of vitamin C is equally important if you have a chronic illness or degenerative disease whether heart disease,(32,117,118,119,120,121) osteoporosis, degenerative disc disease(122) or joint degeneration.

Three companies currently produce different versions (different additives, concentrations, flavorings, packaging) of liposomal vitamin C. LivOn Labs http://livonlabs.com ; Let's Talk Health http://letstalkhealth.com ; and Empirical Labs http://www.empirical-labs.com Of the three companies Let's Talk Health has the best buy.

Each company uses a slightly different formula and different additives but the results are the same, liposomes, providing easy and safe delivery of high dose vitamin C. PLEASE if you decide to order read LABELS. Some using the Let's Have Health Liposomal Vitamin C have been taking 2-3 times what is necessary because they did not read the label. DO NOT use the cup/cap that comes with the product for measuring. You will end up taking too much. If you need help make a phone appointment. 1-775-831-0292

It is also possible to make your own liposomal vitamin C. There are recipes on the internet. My clients (only) may request a tested and refined recipe from me by email. To become a client click here.

Tissue Levels of Vitamin C, The Answer to Those Questions

Getting enough vitamin C is truly important. Only when vitamin C intake is more than sufficient will your tissues be replete. We can't test human tissues, not while we are still living, so we need to learn from animal studies.

A New Zealand study(123) published in December 2010 looked at tissue levels of vitamin C in GULO- mice bred to lack the enzyme l-gulono-lactone oxidase (GLO or GULO) needed to produce their own vitamin C (just like humans). The tissues of these GLO-less mice, after being depleted of vitamin C and/or given various daily doses of vitamin C, were compared with tissues of 'wild-type' mice that make their own vitamin C.

The researchers knew serum levels of C tend to stay within a certain range even with increasing daily doses of vitamin C. This fact is why the DRI (Dietary Reference Intake) has been determined to be 90 mg. for men and 75 mg for women. Greater doses did not appear to raise serum vitamin C much higher and vitamin C began to spill into urine, so researchers determined this amount to be MORE THAN enough.

But serum levels might not reflect tissue levels. The GULO+ mice researchers sought to discover what happens within tissues.

When vitamin C was withheld dramatic losses of vitamin C occurred rapidly in all tissues except the brain, though even there levels dropped as deficiency progressed. This is similar to humans where the brain is the last and slowest organ to deplete C before full blown scurvy occurs.

To replete tissue levels serum vitamin C had to be fully saturated daily. The mouse dose to prevent scurvy, 1.65 mg/d was unable to do that. To keep serum and thereby tissues saturated (equal to the 'wild-type' mice who make their own C) required 10 times (16.6 mg/d) the amount of vitamin C needed to keep mouse serum C and brains within 'normal' range. Tissue levels did not 'fill up" until the mice were regularly given much higher (greater than 'mouse' RDA) levels of vitamin C. It also took some time at the higher levels for tissue levels to 'fill up'.

An average mouse weighs 25 grams, so the vitamin C dose used to replete tissues is equivalent to 660 mg per kilo, 50,000 mg for a 150 lb human. I am NOT suggesting humans need that much just that they surely need more than 100 mg.

Getting tissue levels of vitamin C optimized, ALL tissues, takes time. There appears to be a mechanism with living organisms to retain C (not store it) when daily intake is less than abundant.

The answers to those questions- Will IV C treat cancer? Maybe, the researchers are still working on the question, but it certainly will help and not hurt during any type of treatment. However, keeping all cells vitamin C adequate throughout one's life most certainly will contribute to preventing cancer, all types. Why did the IV C feel so good, normal, and then three days later a return to misery? If all tissues are not saturated with C things just don't work the way they are supposed to. Super-saturation by IV got things 'working' but without underlying tissue stores it just won't last. Vitamin C is not an element (like a mineral or protein or fatty acid) but a facilitator. Vitamin C makes everything work the way it was INTENDED to work. Giving vitamin C to mice bred to express Werner's Syndrome (early premature aging) completely reverses the syndrome. Vitamin C regulates both the creation of new bone and destruction of old bone promoting a healthy skeleton, young and old.

Serum C does not and will NOT reflect tissue levels. What tissues? Every tissue, every cell in your body, skin, muscle, bone, teeth, all organs, pituitary, adrenals, heart, kidney, liver, ovaries, testes, and your brain, contain and require vitamin C.

In addition, tissue levels of C may be low, 'normal' or high and the range of normal is quite broad. In my opinion, supported by the research, high normal TISSUE levels should be the goal. Unfortunately your tissue levels cannot be tested until you're dead. The only way to make sure you have enough is to take enough and spend some time figuring out what that means for YOU.

Persons with Parkinson's, Huntington's and Alzheimer's have low levels of vitamin C in the brain.(124) Sun damaged skin has low levels of vitamin C. In gastritis the stomach lining has low levels of vitamin C. Breast cancer tissues have low levels of vitamin C. It is likely other diseased cells also have less than optimal vitamin C. We can't check until the person or animal with the condition dies.

I'll bet MY LIFE it is VERY important how much C you have in your cells/tissues, not just in your blood. As with ALL nutrients the blood is the LAST place you will see a deficiency, all organs and tissues being depleted prior to appearance of inadequate serum values. If you are low in your blood you are truly, cellularly, deficient even if you don't have scurvy.

UNLIKE vitamin D, a fat soluble nutrient that stores in the body and can result in toxicity (hypervitaminosis D), vitamin C is water soluble, rapidly oxidized, with a fast turnover rate so that even exceedingly high doses given intravenously show little toxicity. Vitamin C has a remarkable track record of safety.

If you have been under stress, whatever the cause, for an extended period of time it will take high doses of vitamin C over a period of time, 3, 6 or even 12 months, to restore tissue vitamin C status. Our cells don't replace as fast as those of GULO- mice. AND even with high dose supplementation some tissues of the genetically altered mice still had lower values than their 'wild-type', C producing cousins at the end of the study.

Make a commitment to your body, get your daily vitamin C. Make the effort to discover what you (not the norm) truly need. A loading dose, for several months, of liposomal vitamin C is likely 2,000 mg three times a day, maintenance C, 1,000 mg twice daily, increasing doses and amounts when needed. If using non-liposomal C, number of doses and amounts will be much higher. Values of ascorbic acid (not liposomal) used by Pauling and others cover a wide range of uses. The so called Bowel Tolerance recommendations should be used cautiously and are not for the faint of heart. Always split the dose to maintain steady, high serum vitamin C, over the day, like our vitamin C producing animal friends. If using non-liposomal C you'll need to take more than three doses a day.

Your only measure of C sufficiency will be your overall response. Expect rapid healing from illness and injury, strong, healthy teeth and gums with little or no plaque, strong bones, excellent response and recovery to stress both mental and physical, mental sharpness, quality sleep, a sense of physical and mental well-being, a positive attitude, great skin, hair, and nails, avoidance of aging eyes, moist mucous membranes, problem free menopause, and a LONG life because vitamin C preserves and LENGTHENS telomeres.(125,126,127,128,129,130)

Vitamin C only works if you eat right for your genetic requirements, get all the essential nutrients YOU need every day, AND exercise. A long and healthy life requires a multitude of elements, inside and out. Remember, vitamin C facilitates health.

Verb: facilitate (physiology) increase the likelihood of (a response).

See references at the end of the newsletter.

The latest versions of my publications, the Practical Nutrition Workbook, the manuscript Naked at Noon, Understanding Sunlight and Vitamin D and the Preliminary Report on Sunlight and Vitamin D with Physician and Patient Protocols have all been updated with the vitamin C information. They may be ordered by fax 775-525-0292 (with credit card information) or online http://sunlightd.org

A Better Way to Lower High Blood Pressure

A recent study found olive leaf extract as effective as medication in normalizing stage 1 high blood pressure (140/90 to 159/99). Not only was the olive leaf extract as effective as the medication in normalizing blood pressure, ONLY the olive leaf extract also LOWERED TRIGLYCERIDES.

What this means for you- Planetary Herbals Full Spectrum Olive Leaf Extract (1) twice a day with or without food should do the trick. Good prices at http://vitaglo.com or http://iherb.com (use my pin RIS664 to get a discount at iherb) If you try it let me know.

Phytomedicine. 2011 Feb 15;18(4):251-8. Epub 2010 Oct 30. Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract effective in patients with stage-1 hypertension: comparison with Captopril. Susalit E, Agus N, Effendi I, Tjandrawinata RR, Nofiarny D, Perrinjaquet-Moccetti T, Verbruggen M.

Source Nephrology & Hypertension Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia/Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Jl. Diponegoro 71, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia.

Abstract A double-blind, randomized, parallel and active-controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the anti-hypertensive effect as well as the tolerability of Olive leaf extract in comparison with Captopril in patients with stage-1 hypertension. Additionally, this study also investigated the hypolipidemic effects of Olive leaf extract in such patients. It consisted of a run-in period of 4 weeks continued subsequently by an 8-week treatment period. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract (EFLA(®)943) was given orally at the dose of 500 mg twice daily in a flat-dose manner throughout the 8 weeks. Captopril was given at the dosage regimen of 12.5 mg twice daily at start. After 2 weeks, if necessary, the dose of Captopril would be titrated to 25 mg twice daily, based on subject's response to treatment. The primary efficacy endpoint was reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) from baseline to week-8 of treatment. The secondary efficacy endpoints were SBP as well as diastolic blood pressure (DBP) changes at every time-point evaluation and lipid profile improvement. Evaluation of BP was performed every week for 8 weeks of treatment; while of lipid profile at a 4-week interval. Mean SBP at baseline was 149.3±5.58 mmHg in Olive group and 148.4±5.56 mmHg in Captopril group; and mean DBPs were 93.9±4.51 and 93.8±4.88 mmHg, respectively. After 8 weeks of treatment, both groups experienced a significant reduction of SBP as well as DBP from baseline; while such reductions were not significantly different between groups. Means of SBP reduction from baseline to the end of study were -11.5±8.5 and -13.7±7.6 mmHg in Olive and Captopril groups, respectively; and those of DBP were -4.8±5.5 and -6.4±5.2 mmHg, respectively. A significant reduction of triglyceride level was observed in Olive group, but not in Captopril group. In conclusion, Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract, at the dosage regimen of 500 mg twice daily, was similarly effective in lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressures in subjects with stage-1 hypertension as Captopril, given at its effective dose of 12.5-25 mg twice daily. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Why You Should Not Take High Dose Calcium, Ever

April 24, 2011- published April 19, 2011 in the British Medical Journal a meta-analysis of 36,282 postmenopausal women given calcium or calcium with vitamin D found higher incidence (slight but there nonetheless) of MI (myocardial infarction) with or without stroke. The researchers could not determine the exact cause but suggest the acute rise of calcium after supplementation may be a problem as both high and low dose calcium with or without D were implicated. From the study-

.". This would be consistent with the notion that the abrupt change in plasma calcium concentration after supplement ingestion causes the adverse effect, rather than it being related to the total calcium load ingested."

Please make sure, if you do take calcium, as suggested in the Workbook and Preliminary Report, take small amounts throughout the day with food. Also consider that minerals are best in combination, not as singular elements, and consider that vitamin K, minimum daily dose 1 mg. (1,000 mcg), is critical to the health of both heart and bones keeping calcium in bones and out of soft tissues (such as arteries). This information is also in both the workbook and report.

The body is not designed to handle large doses of vitamins or minerals 'all at once'. Take your supplements with meals, spread out over the day. And remember to test your vitamin D levels yearly and keep your 25(OH)D between 40-60 ng/ml NOT higher.

Vitamin C Reference List

1. Effects of nutrients (in food) on the structure and function of the nervous system: update on dietary requirements for brain. Part 1: micronutrients Bourre, J. M. 2006 J.Nutr.Health Aging

2. Vitamin C deficiency in early postnatal life impairs spatial memory and reduces the number of hippocampal neurons in guinea pigs Tveden-Nyborg, P., Johansen, L. K., Raida, Z., Villumsen, C. K., Larsen, J. O., and Lykkesfeldt, J. 2009 Am.J.Clin.Nutr.

3. A metabolic switch in brain: glucose and lactate metabolism modulation by ascorbic acid Castro, M. A., Beltran, F. A., Brauchi, S., and Concha, I. I. 2009 J.Neurochem.

4. The influence of short-chain essential fatty acids on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a double-blind placebo-controlled study Raz, R., Carasso, R. L., and Yehuda, S. 2009 J.Child Adolesc.Psychopharmacol.

5. Does vitamin C deficiency result in impaired brain development in infants? Tveden-Nyborg, P. and Lykkesfeldt, J. 2009 Redox.Rep.

6. Observations on the dose and administration of ascorbic acid when employed beyond the range of a vitamin in human pathology. KLENNER, F. R. 1971 J.Appl.Nutr.

7. Effect of marginal ascorbic acid deficiency on saliva level of cortisol in the guinea pig Enwonwu, C. O., Sawiris, P., and Chanaud, N. 1995 Arch.Oral Biol.

8. The role of ascorbic acid in the function of the adrenal cortex: studies in adrenocortical cells in culture Hornsby, P. J., Harris, S. E., and Aldern, K. A. 1985 Endocrinology

9. Influence of vitamin C status on the urinary excretion of catecholamines in stress Kallner, A. 1983 Hum.Nutr.Clin.Nutr.

10. Effects of ascorbic acid deficiency on adrenal mitochondrial hydroxylations in guinea pigs Bjorkhem, I., Kallner, A., and Karlmar, K. E. 1978 J.Lipid Res.

11. Evidence for an in vivo role of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 and -2 as inhibitors of collagen gene expression in vitamin C-deficient and fasted guinea pigs Gosiewska, A., Wilson, S., Kwon, D., and Peterkofsky, B. 1994 Endocrinology

12. Cell damage and death by autoschizis in human bladder (RT4) carcinoma cells resulting from treatment with ascorbate and menadione Gilloteaux, J., Jamison, J. M., Neal, D. R., Loukas, M., Doberzstyn, T., and Summers, J. L. 2010 Ultrastruct.Pathol.

13. High dose of ascorbic acid induces cell death in mesothelioma cells Takemura, Y., Satoh, M., Satoh, K., Hamada, H., Sekido, Y., and Kubota, S. 4-2-2010 Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun.

14. Ascorbate (vitamin C) induces cell death through the apoptosis-inducing factor in human breast cancer cells Hong, S. W., Jin, D. H., Hahm, E. S., Yim, S. H., Lim, J. S., Kim, K. I., Yang, Y., Lee, S. S., Kang, J. S., Lee, W. J., Lee, W. K., and Lee, M. S. 2007 Oncol.Rep.

15. Ascorbate deficiency results in impaired neutrophil apoptosis and clearance and is associated with up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha Vissers, M. C. and Wilkie, R. P. 2007 J.Leukoc.Biol.

16. Ascorbate synthesis pathway: dual role of ascorbate in bone homeostasis Gabbay, K. H., Bohren, K. M., Morello, R., Bertin, T., Liu, J., and Vogel, P. 6-18-2010 J.Biol.Chem.

17. Protective effect of total and supplemental vitamin C intake on the risk of hip fracture--a 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study Sahni, S., Hannan, M. T., Gagnon, D., Blumberg, J., Cupples, L. A., Kiel, D. P., and Tucker, K. L. 2009 Osteoporos.Int.

18. [Vitamin C: structure-activity correlation and cytoprotective actions through free radical scavenging and extracellular matrix construction] Kaneko, K., Nagao, N., and Miwa, N. 1999 Nippon Rinsho

19. Further investigations on the role of ascorbic acid in stratum corneum lipid models after UV exposure Trommer, H., Bottcher, R., Huschka, C., Wohlrab, W., and Neubert, R. H. 2005 J.Pharm.Pharmacol.

20. Vitamin C enhances differentiation of a continuous keratinocyte cell line (REK) into epidermis with normal stratum corneum ultrastructure and functional permeability barrier Pasonen-Seppanen, S., Suhonen, T. M., Kirjavainen, M., Suihko, E., Urtti, A., Miettinen, M., Hyttinen, M., Tammi, M., and Tammi, R. 2001 Histochem.Cell Biol.

21. The formation of competent barrier lipids in reconstructed human epidermis requires the presence of vitamin C Ponec, M., Weerheim, A., Kempenaar, J., Mulder, A., Gooris, G. S., Bouwstra, J., and Mommaas, A. M. 1997 J.Invest Dermatol.

22. Long-term effects of inadequate and excessive dietary ascorbate on bile acid metabolism in the guinea pig Holloway, D. E. and Rivers, J. M. 1984 J.Nutr.

23. Vitamin C in the control of hypercholesterolemia in man Ginter, E., Bobek, P., Kubec, F., Vozar, J., and Urbanova, D. 1982 Int.J.Vitam.Nutr.Res.Suppl

24. Influence of chronic ascorbic acid deficiency and excessive ascorbic acid intake on bile acid metabolism and bile composition in the guinea pig Holloway, D. E. and Rivers, J. M. 1981 J.Nutr.

25. Hypocholesterolemic effect of ascorbic acid in maturity-onset diabetes mellitus Ginter, E., Zdichynec, B., Holzerova, O., Ticha, E., Kobza, R., Koziakova, M., Cerna, O., Ozdin, L., Hruba, F., Novakova, V., Sasko, E., and Gaher, M. 1978 Int.J.Vitam.Nutr.Res.

26. Serum bile acids in man during vitamin C supplementation and restriction Kallner, A. 1977 Acta Med.Scand.

27. Ascorbic acid and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease Lynch, S. M., Gaziano, J. M., and Frei, B. 1996 Subcell.Biochem.

28. Vitamin C and cardiovascular disease: a review Simon, J. A. 1992 J.Am.Coll.Nutr.

29. Gallstone formation in guinea pigs under different dietary conditions. Effect of vitamin C on bile acid pattern Bergman, F., Curstedt, T., Eriksson, H., van der Linden, W., and Sjovall, J. 1981 Med.Biol.

30. Seasonal variation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diet in older adults Woodhouse, P. R. and Khaw, K. T. 2000 Int.J.Circumpolar.Health

31. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, the acute phase response and vitamin C Woodhouse, P. R., Meade, T. W., and Khaw, K. T. 1997 Atherosclerosis

32. Interrelation of vitamin C, infection, haemostatic factors, and cardiovascular disease Khaw, K. T. and Woodhouse, P. 6-17-1995 BMJ

33. Plasma vitamin C level, fruit and vegetable consumption, and the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus: the European prospective investigation of cancer--Norfolk prospective study Harding, A. H., Wareham, N. J., Bingham, S. A., Khaw, K., Luben, R., Welch, A., and Forouhi, N. G. 7-28-2008 Arch.Intern.Med.

34. Plasma vitamin C concentrations predict risk of incident stroke over 10 y in 20 649 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer Norfolk prospective population study Myint, P. K., Luben, R. N., Welch, A. A., Bingham, S. A., Wareham, N. J., and Khaw, K. T. 2008 Am.J.Clin.Nutr.

35. Plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid and C-reactive protein, and risk of future coronary artery disease, in apparently healthy men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study Boekholdt, S. M., Meuwese, M. C., Day, N. E., Luben, R., Welch, A., Wareham, N. J., and Khaw, K. T. 2006 Br.J.Nutr.

36. Dietary antioxidants and asthma in adults Patel, B. D., Welch, A. A., Bingham, S. A., Luben, R. N., Day, N. E., Khaw, K. T., Lomas, D. A., and Wareham, N. J. 2006 Thorax

37. Plasma ascorbic acid concentrations and fat distribution in 19,068 British men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Norfolk cohort study Canoy, D., Wareham, N., Welch, A., Bingham, S., Luben, R., Day, N., and Khaw, K. T. 2005 Am.J.Clin.Nutr.

38. Plasma vitamin C, cancer mortality and incidence in men and women: a prospective study Luben, R., Khaw, K. T., Welch, A., Bingham, S., Wareham, N., Oakes, S., and Day, N. E. 2002 IARC Sci.Publ.

39. Relation between plasma ascorbic acid and mortality in men and women in EPIC-Norfolk prospective study: a prospective population study. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Khaw, K. T., Bingham, S., Welch, A., Luben, R., Wareham, N., Oakes, S., and Day, N. 3-3-2001 Lancet

40. Vitamin C and hyperglycemia in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer--Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) study: a population-based study Sargeant, L. A., Wareham, N. J., Bingham, S., Day, N. E., Luben, R. N., Oakes, S., Welch, A., and Khaw, K. T. 2000 Diabetes Care

41. Is ascorbate in human tears from corneal leakage or from lacrimal secretion? Choy, C. K., Benzie, I. F., and Cho, P. 2004 Clin.Exp.Optom.

42. Antioxidants in tears and plasma: Inter-relationships and effect of vitamin C supplementation Choy, C., Benzie, I., and Cho, P. 2003 Curr.Eye Res.

43. Salivary antioxidants and periodontal disease status Sculley, D. V. and Langley-Evans, S. C. 2002 Proc.Nutr.Soc.

44. Ascorbate deficiency impairs the muscarinic-cholinergic and ss-adrenergic receptor signaling systems in the guinea pig submandibular salivary gland Sawiris, P. G. and Enwonwu, C. O. 2000 J.Nutr.

45. [Inhibitory effects of serotonin and sodium ascorbate on the oxidative aggregation of lipoproteins] Petrenko, IuM, Titov, V. I., and Vladimirov, IuA 2000 Eksp.Klin.Farmakol.

46. Do iron and vitamin C co-supplementation influence platelet function or LDL oxidizability in healthy volunteers? Yang, M., Collis, C. S., Kelly, M., Diplock, A. T., and Rice-Evans, C. 1999 Eur.J.Clin.Nutr.

47. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations in plasma, gastric juice, and gastrointestinal mucosa: effects of gastritis and oral supplementation Waring, A. J., Drake, I. M., Schorah, C. J., White, K. L., Lynch, D. A., Axon, A. T., and Dixon, M. F. 1996 Gut

48. Ascorbate on cell growth and differentiation Alcain, F. J. and Buron, M. I. 1994 J.Bioenerg.Biomembr.

49. Ascorbate status and xerostomia Enwonwu, C. O. 1992 Med.Hypotheses

50. Ascorbic acid requirement for optimal flexor tendon repair in vitro Russell, J. E. and Manske, P. R. 1991 J.Orthop.Res.

51. The time-course of oxytocin secretion from cultured bovine granulosa cells, stimulated by ascorbate and catecholamines Luck, M. R. and Jungclas, B. 1988 J.Endocrinol.

52. Induction of collagen synthesis by ascorbic acid. A possible mechanism Pinnel, S. R., Murad, S., and Darr, D. 1987 Arch.Dermatol.

53. Ascorbic acid enhances the release of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone from the mediobasal hypothalamus in vitro Miller, B. T. and Cicero, T. J. 12-22-1986 Life Sci.

54. Contribution of a high dose of L-ascorbic acid to carnitine synthesis in guinea pigs fed high-fat diets Otsuka, M., Matsuzawa, M., Ha, T. Y., and Arakawa, N. 1999 J.Nutr.Sci.Vitaminol.(Tokyo)

55. The Role of Histamine in Mental Illness and its Attenuation with Vitamin C Jensen, R 2005

56. [Bases to determine the dose of vitamin C in pregnancy] Casanueva, E., Angulo, M. E., Goidberg, S., Pfeffer, F., Meza-Camacho, C., Vadillo-Ortega, F., and Rothenberg, S. J. 2005 Gac.Med.Mex.

57. Effects of different levels of vitamin C intake on the vitamin C concentration in guinea pigs plasma and the effect of vitamin C intake on anaphylaxis Pavlovic, S. and Fraser, R. 1988 Med.Interne

58. The vitamin C treatment of allergy and the normally unprimed state of antibodies Cathcart, R. F., III 1986 Med.Hypotheses

59. Cell-mediated immunity in nutritional deficiency McMurray, D. N. 1984 Prog.Food Nutr.Sci.

60. The immunostimulatory, antiinflammatory and anti-allergic properties of ascorbate Anderson, R. 1984 Adv.Nutr.Res.

61. Effects of ascorbate on normal and abnormal leucocyte functions Anderson, R. 1982 Int.J.Vitam.Nutr.Res.Suppl

62. The effect of ascorbate on cellular humoral immunity in asthmatic children Anderson, R., Hay, I., van, Wyk H., Oosthuizen, R., and Theron, A. 12-13-1980 S.Afr.Med.J.

63. Novel aspects of vitamin C in epoetin response Tarng, D. C. 2007 J.Chin Med.Assoc.

64. [Vitamins C, B12 and folic acid in latent iron deficiency] Akhmeteli, K. T., Eradze, TsSh, Tushurashvili, P. R., and margvelani, G. P. 2005 Georgian.Med.News

65. Intravenous iron preparations and ascorbic acid: effects on chelatable and bioavailable iron Sturm, B., Laggner, H., Ternes, N., Goldenberg, H., and Scheiber-Mojdehkar, B. 2005 Kidney Int.

66. [Vitamin C deficiency] Fain, O. 2004 Rev.Med.Interne

67. Iron deficiency anemia. A study of risk factors Al-Quaiz, J. M. 2001 Saudi.Med.J.

68. Dietary risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease: a multicenter case-control study in Japan Sakamoto, N., Kono, S., Wakai, K., Fukuda, Y., Satomi, M., Shimoyama, T., Inaba, Y., Miyake, Y., Sasaki, S., Okamoto, K., Kobashi, G., Washio, M., Yokoyama, T., Date, C., and Tanaka, H. 2005 Inflamm.Bowel.Dis.

69. Effects of free radicals and leukocytes on increases in blood-brain barrier permeability during colitis Hathaway, C. A., Percy, W. H., and Williams, J. L. 2000 Dig.Dis.Sci.

70. Depleted mucosal antioxidant defences in inflammatory bowel disease Buffinton, G. D. and Doe, W. F. 1995 Free Radic.Biol.Med.

71. Altered ascorbic acid status in the mucosa from inflammatory bowel disease patients Buffinton, G. D. and Doe, W. F. 1995 Free Radic.Res.

72. Vitamin C status, glutathione and histamine in gastric carcinoma, tuberculous enteritis and non-specific ulcerative colitis Dubey, S. S., Sinha, K. K., and Gupta, J. P. 1985 Indian J.Physiol Pharmacol.

73. Vitamin C and gastroduodental disorders Esposito, R. and Valentini, R. 4-13-1968 Br.Med.J.

74. Effect of oral administration of vitamin C on human aqueous humor ascorbate concentration Iqbal, Z., Midgley, J. M., Watson, D. G., Karditsas, S. D., Dutton, G. N., and Wilson, W. S. 1999 Zhongguo Yao Li Xue.Bao.

75. A physiological level of ascorbate inhibits galactose cataract in guinea pigs by decreasing polyol accumulation in the lens epithelium: a dehydroascorbate-linked mechanism Yokoyama, T., Sasaki, H., Giblin, F. J., and Reddy, V. N. 1994 Exp.Eye Res.

76. Associations between nutrition and cataract Taylor, A. 1989 Nutr.Rev.

77. Ascorbic acid and the eye lens Varma, S. D. and Richards, R. D. 1988 Ophthalmic Res.

78. Vitamin C in the human aqueous humor and cataracts Chandra, D. B., Varma, R., Ahmad, S., and Varma, S. D. 1986 Int.J.Vitam.Nutr.Res.

79. Inflammation in the vascular bed: importance of vitamin C Aguirre, R. and May, J. M. 2008 Pharmacol.Ther.

80. The planetary biology of ascorbate and uric acid and their relationship with the epidemic of obesity and cardiovascular disease Johnson, R. J., Gaucher, E. A., Sautin, Y. Y., Henderson, G. N., Angerhofer, A. J., and Benner, S. A. 2008 Med.Hypotheses

81. How does ascorbic acid prevent endothelial dysfunction? May, J. M. 5-1-2000 Free Radic.Biol.Med.

82. Effect of vitamin C on ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids in older persons Fotherby, M. D., Williams, J. C., Forster, L. A., Craner, P., and Ferns, G. A. 2000 J.Hypertens.

83. Does vitamin C reduce blood pressure? Results of a large study of people aged 65 or older Bates, C. J., Walmsley, C. M., Prentice, A., and Finch, S. 1998 J.Hypertens.

84. Are diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy caused by hyperglycemic exclusion of dehydroascorbate uptake by glucose transporters? Root-Bernstein, R., Busik, J. V., and Henry, D. N. 6-7-2002 J.Theor.Biol.

85. Inhibition of aldose reductase in human erythrocytes by vitamin C Vincent, T. E., Mendiratta, S., and May, J. M. 1999 Diabetes Res.Clin.Pract.

86. Effect of ascorbic acid deficiency on primary and reparative dentinogenesis in non-ascorbate-synthesizing ODS rats Ogawara, M., Aoki, K., Okiji, T., and Suda, H. 1997 Arch.Oral Biol.

87. Effects of ascorbate-deficiency on collagen secretion and resorption in cultured mouse incisor germs Amar, S., Fabre, M., and Ruch, J. V. 1992 Connect.Tissue Res.

88. The role of ascorbic acid on the structural integrity of developing tooth germs Levenson, G. E. and Schiltz, J. R. 1979 J.Biol.Buccale

89. Periodontal disease is associated with lower antioxidant capacity in whole saliva and evidence of increased protein oxidation Sculley, D. V. and Langley-Evans, S. C. 2003 Clin.Sci.(Lond)

90. Diabetes and periodontal diseases. Possible role of vitamin c deficiency: an hypothesis Aleo, J. J. 1981 J.Periodontol.

91. High-dose vitamin C supplementation accelerates the Achilles tendon healing in healthy rats Omeroglu, S., Peker, T., Turkozkan, N., and Omeroglu, H. 2009 Arch.Orthop.Trauma Surg.

92. Effect of pre-loading oral glucosamine HCl/chondroitin sulfate/manganese ascorbate combination on experimental arthritis in rats Beren, J., Hill, S. L., ener-West, M., and Rose, N. R. 2001 Exp.Biol.Med.(Maywood.)

93. Ascorbate availability and neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Kok, A. B. 1997 Med.Hypotheses

94. Treatment of chronic autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura with ascorbate Godeau, B. and Bierling, P. 1990 Br.J.Haematol.

95. Vitamin C and immunity: natural killer (NK) cell factor Siegel, B. V. and Morton, J. I. 1983 Int.J.Vitam.Nutr.Res.

96. The effect of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and their treatment on parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant status Erdamar, H., Demirci, H., Yaman, H., Erbil, M. K., Yakar, T., Sancak, B., Elbeg, S., Biberoglu, G., and Yetkin, I. 2008 Clin.Chem.Lab Med.

97. Mechanism of action of vitamin C in sepsis: ascorbate modulates redox signaling in endothelium Wilson, J. X. 2009 Biofactors

98. Vitamin C: from popular food supplement to specific drug Goldenberg, H. 2003 Forum Nutr.

99. Serum ascorbic acid concentration in patients with acute Falciparum malaria infection: possible significance Hassan, G. I., Gregory, U., and Maryam, H. 2004 Braz.J.Infect.Dis.

100. Skin, muscle and joint disease from the 17th century: scurvy Lau, H., Massasso, D., and Joshua, F. 2009 Int.J.Rheum.Dis.

101. New insights into the epidemiology of gout Doherty, M. 2009 Rheumatology.(Oxford)

102. Vitamin C intake and the risk of gout in men: a prospective study Choi, H. K., Gao, X., and Curhan, G. 3-9-2009 Arch.Intern.Med.

103. Vitamin C intake and serum uric acid concentration in men Gao, X., Curhan, G., Forman, J. P., Ascherio, A., and Choi, H. K. 2008 J.Rheumatol.

104. Effect of antioxidants on knee cartilage and bone in healthy, middle-aged subjects: a cross-sectional study Wang, Y., Hodge, A. M., Wluka, A. E., English, D. R., Giles, G. G., O'Sullivan, R., Forbes, A., and Cicuttini, F. M. 2007 Arthritis Res.Ther.

105. Vitamin C may help prevent arthritis 2004 Health News

106. Vitamin C and the risk of developing inflammatory polyarthritis: prospective nested case-control study Pattison, D. J., Silman, A. J., Goodson, N. J., Lunt, M., Bunn, D., Luben, R., Welch, A., Bingham, S., Khaw, K. T., Day, N., and Symmons, D. P. 2004 Ann.Rheum.Dis.

107. [Reduced pain from osteoarthritis in hip joint or knee joint during treatment with calcium ascorbate. A randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in general practice] Jensen, N. H. 6-16-2003 Ugeskr.Laeger

108. Biochemical changes in arthritic rats: dehydroascorbic and ascorbic acid levels Simoes, S. I., Eleuterio, C. V., Cruz, M. E., Corvo, M. L., and Martins, M. B. 2003 Eur.J.Pharm.Sci.

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